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dc.contributor.authorEickmeier, Justin
dc.contributor.authorTollit, Dominic
dc.contributor.authorTrounce, Krista
dc.contributor.authorWarner, Graham
dc.contributor.authorWood, Jason
dc.contributor.authorMacGillivray, Alex
dc.contributor.authorLi, Zizheng
dc.coverage.spatialSalish Sea
dc.identifier.citationEickmeier, J., Tollit, D., Trounce, K., Warner, G., Wood, J., MacGillivray, A. and Zizheng Li (2021) Salish Sea Ambient Noise Study: Best Practices (2021). Vancouver, British Columbia, Vancouver Fraser Port Authority, Enhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation (ECHO) Program, 50pp. DOI:
dc.description.abstractAll monitoring locations and hydrophone systems have unique features that affect the ability to monitor ambient noise levels accurately. As anthropogenic underwater noise effects on marine species becomes increasing important globally, it is imperative to understand how best to consistently measure, analyze, and account for factors contributing to the soundscape. The Enhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation Program, led by the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority, seeks to mitigate shipping noise effects on at-risk whales, particularly endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales. Utilizing two years of data from three different, cabled inshore hydrophone stations in the Salish Sea, this high-level review aims to help understand and address key environmental and anthropogenic factors that contribute to ambient noise. Contributions from: the hydrophone system and ancillary equipment; rain, wind and tidal currents; factors affecting sound propagation; biological presence; and vessel traffic are considered in this study, and “best practice” recommendations for undertaking standardized long-term noise assessment are provided. Key findings highlight that early and frequent quality assessment protocols are imperative, weather and tidal information should be collected proximate to the hydrophone, vessel traffic was the dominating influence at all locations across all measured frequencies, and validated noise models should augment empirical data collection. Monthly variability in sound pressure levels was 2-6 dB, highlighting the analytical challenges in determining “existing” conditions and detecting trends or testing mitigation strategies. Accounting for the key factors contributing to the soundscape is considered critical in these evaluations.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was sponsored and financially supported by the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority. Transport Canada provided additional financial support.en_US
dc.publisherVancouver Fraser Port Authority, Enhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation (ECHO) Programen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subject.otherSound pressureen_US
dc.subject.otherAmbient noiseen_US
dc.subject.otherSound fieldsen_US
dc.subject.otherSource levelsen_US
dc.subject.otherMetocean dataen_US
dc.subject.otherSound speed profilesen_US
dc.subject.otherOcean currentsen_US
dc.subject.otherNoise effects
dc.titleSalish Sea Ambient Noise Study: Best Practices. (2021).en_US
dc.contributor.corpauthorEnhancing Cetacean Habitat and Observation (ECHO) Programen_US
dc.description.refereedNon Refereeden_US
dc.publisher.placeVancouver, Canadaen_US
dc.subject.parameterDisciplineParameter Discipline::Physical oceanography::Acousticsen_US
dc.subject.instrumentTypeInstrument Type Vocabulary::hydrophonesen_US
dc.subject.dmProcessesData Management Practices::Data acquisitionen_US
dc.subject.dmProcessesData Management Practices::Data processingen_US
dc.subject.dmProcessesData Management Practices::Data quality controlen_US
dc.description.eovOcean Sounden_US
dc.description.maturitylevelTRL 5 System/subsystem/component validation in relevant environmenten_US
dc.description.bptypeBest Practiceen_US
dc.description.bptypeStandard Operating Procedure Eickmeier

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International